Introduction. In a market economy, the process of state development is often accompanied by a drop in the standard of living of the population, a deterioration in the demographic situation in the country, a reduction in the average life expectancy of people, which makes it necessary to improve the effectiveness of the social protection system of citizens. When developing a social policy, the question of social priorities arises as one of the most important, that is, such social tasks that are currently the most urgent and urgent for society, require priority solutions, such as social protection of the working and non-working population, pension provision, social support for low-income segments of the population and the unemployed, etc.
Materials and methods. During the preparation of the article the authors used conference materials, as well as in the review of sources – modern foreign periodicals.
Results. The world practice of social insurance shows that the greatest social effect is achieved with the three-channel formation of insurance funds at the expense of contributions of employees, employers and the state. This method of financing ensures joint responsibility of the participants for the prevention and compensation of risks, joint management and control of the funds. In case of compulsory social insurance, the distribution is considered the most reasonable, when the biggest part of financing falls on the employer – 50%, 20-40% – on the state and 10-30% – on the employee.
Conclusion. Based on the analysis of international experience, we can conclude that the most effective and comprehensive social protection systems usually include the following main elements: state benefits, compulsory social insurance, funded pensions, social assistance.
Since the success of fundamental and profound social reforms depends on the public recognition of their justice, the social policy pursued by the state should be based on modern and adequate social indicators and criteria that are adequate to the new economic principles.
The latter determine the threshold values of indicators of social activity and social security. Crossing these borders is unacceptable, as it is fraught with negative social consequences that make further progress in the economic reform of society impossible.
For citation: Tuzubekova, M., Kazizova, G., Sarybaeva, I., Zhunussova, G. (2022). Social policy of the state and the role of state programs in solving the problems of social protection of the population. Economic consultant, 37 (1), 61-71. doi: 10.46224/ecoc.2022.1.5
Information about the authors:
Madina Tuzubekova (Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan) – Department of Economics, Accounting and Audit. Kazakh University of Technology and Business. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. ResearcherID: K-7450-2014. Scopus Author ID: 55962418900
Gulnar Kazizova (Kazakhstan, Pavlodar) – Lecturer. Innovative University of Eurasia. Scopus Author ID: 55815785800
Inara Sarybaeva (Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan) – Lecturer. Kazakh University of Technology and Business.
Gulzhakhan Zhunussova (Kazakhstan, Pavlodar) – Lecturer. Kazakh University of Technology and Business.
Introduction. The central purpose of this study is to estimate the impact of globalization on poverty in Pakistan. Poverty is world massive curse in the previous and present years. Different organizations and institutions of the world are struggling to eliminate it from the world. Globalization and poverty is corresponding in the world and similarly in Pakistan.
Materials and methods. We used time series data from 1970 to 2019 and assigned autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model approach to take out empirical results which indicate that Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Openness, and Gross Domestic Product. The ARDL model is one of the most common dynamic unrestricted model in econometric literature.
Results. We summarize that globalization has dominant positive influence on poverty and economic growth and considerably decreased level of poverty in Pakistan. Improving trade openness, FDI, and GDP are the central and dynamic for reducing poverty in Pakistan. It indicates that there is tight association between globalization and poverty in the context of Pakistan.
Conclusions. This study proposes that utilizing globalization as an instrument and putting together such policies that primarily for the poor’s will help government to eradicate poverty. Although liberalization has contributed to poverty reduction, most of the developed countries have not so much liberalized their economies by maintaining their immigration laws, which discourage the immigration of labor from developing countries including Pakistan. Therefore, we would like to present the following recommendations for policymakers. Pakistan trade is still limited to specific countries. Pakistan has needed to explore its trade to other countries markets. The government should grab measures to revise its immigration laws, structural reforms, policy regarding trade openness, import exports and poverty at macro level, because immigration laws play a very crucial role and the impact of trade openness on poverty is the most significant one. Pakistan should pay some considerable attention to employment creation.Pakistan should pay reasonable interest to improve law and order situation to captivate international business community to invest in Pakistan. Pakistan trade is still limited to specific countries. Pakistan has needed to explore its trade to other country markets.
For citation: Shakil, A. & Imran, Kh. (2022). The impact of globalization, foreign direct investment and trade openness on poverty: a case study of Pakistan. Economic consultant, 37 (1), 41-60. doi: 10.46224/ecoc.2022.1.4
Information about the authors:
Shakil Ahmad (Pakistan, Mardan) – PhD Scholar, School of International Trade and Economics. University of International Business and Economics Beijing, China. E-mail: ShakilAhmadeco@gmail.com. ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3744-9162
Imran Khan (Pakistan, Lower Dir) – Department of Economics, Government Post Graduate College Timergara.
Introduction. The development of online marketing in social networks creates unique opportunities for personal selling. Especially these opportunities are manifested in online education when they buy a brand of an expert with experience in a particular field. That is why a competitive space is being formed in the Instagram social network, where a personal brand acts as a product or service.
Materials and methods. Studying the effectiveness of promoting a personal brand in social networks based on the Instagram platform was chosen to have great visual opportunities for self-presentation. As part of the collection of empirical material, two methods were used: a survey (N-200) and content analysis of three blogger accounts with high rates of activity and popularity.
Results and discussion. Content analysis of bloggers showed that an algorithmic feed on a social network allows bloggers to control the content. To help them, Instagram provides statistical data on user reach, thereby capturing trends in the movement of the blogger’s audience. The main task of a blogger is to combine real and “virtual” images so as not to lose consumer confidence. A survey of social network users confirmed the importance of a personal brand for them. The survey also made it possible to identify the most popular audience requests that they expect from bloggers and their accounts: valuable reviews and recommendations, case studies and author’s solutions, storytelling, blogger’s reflections and motivating messages, live broadcasts, and stories are important.
Conclusions. The results obtained underline followers’ high level of interest in the bloggers’ personal brand on Instagram. The study results show that the most significant number of those involved (those who give feedback and are constantly involved in interaction with the account) is where the formation of a personal brand is built to a greater extent on the emotional level of perception of the individual.
For citation: Shutaleva, A. V., Novgorodtseva, A. N., & Ryapalova, O. S. (2022). Self-presentation in Instagram: promotion of a personal brand in social networks. Economic consultant, 37 (1), 27-40. doi: 10.46224/ecoc.2022.1.3
Information about the authors:
Anna V. Shutaleva (Russia, Ekaterinburg) – Associate Professor, PhD of Philosophy, Associate Professor Department of Philosophy. Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin | Associate Professor Department of Philosophy Sociology. Ural State Law University named after V. F. Yakovlev. Scopus Author ID: 57211978249. E-mail: email@example.com
Anastasia N. Novgorodtseva (Russia, Ekaterinburg) – Associate Professor, PhD of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor Department of Applied Sociology Department of Political Science and Sociology. Ural Humanitarian Institute. Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Scopus Author ID: 57215904946
Oksana S. Ryapalova (Russia, Ekaterinburg) – Magister of Department of Applied Sociology Department of Political Science and Sociology. Ural Humanitarian Institute. Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. E-mail: email@example.com